Allegations that anthropologists, including one former UCSB professor, deliberately infected a South American Indian tribe with an epidemic and falsified evidence of violence among the group have sparked fierce debate in the anthropological community.

In the book Darkness in El Dorado, University of Pittsburgh scholar Patrick Tierney alleges that UCSB anthropology Professor Emeritus Napoleon Chagnon and former University of Michigan geneticist James Neel intentionally infected the Yanomam